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In general if you cannot use the remote control, then you will have to kill the x11vnc process This can be done via: If somehow your Keypress of Ctrl-C went through x11vnc to the Xserver that then delivered it to x11vnc it is possible one or both of the Ctrl or C keys will be left stuck in the pressed down state in the Xserver.

Tapping the stuck key either via a new x11vnc or at the physical console will release it from the stuck state. If the keyboard seems to be acting strangely it is often fixed by tapping Ctrl , Shift , and Alt.

They allow nearly everything to be changed dynamically and settings to be queried. These commands do not start a x11vnc server, but rather communicate with one that is already running.

If no X server is involved i. It can also run in the system tray: Otherwise, you could use the vncpasswd 1 program from those packages. Be sure to quote the "pass" if it contains shell meta characters, spaces, etc.

You then use the password via the x11vnc option: If you supply one argument, e. If a password file cannot be found or created x11vnc exits immediately. An admin may want to set it up this way for users who do not know better.

Note the full-access password option -passwd must be supplied at the same time. To avoid specifying the passwords on the command line where they could be observed via the ps 1 command by any user you can use the -passwdfile option to specify a file containing plain text passwords.

Presumably this file is readable only by you, and ideally it is located on the machine x11vnc is run on to avoid being snooped on over the network. The first line of this file is the full-access password. If there is a second line in the file and it is non-blank, it is taken as the view-only password.

View-only passwords currently do not work for the -rfbauth password option standard VNC password storing mechanism. You can also easily annotate and comment out passwords in the file. You can have x11vnc re-read the file dynamically when it is modified. See ypcat 1 and shadow 5. Without these one might send the Unix username and password data in clear text over the network which is a very bad idea. Additional testing is appreciated. For the last 4 it appears that su 1 will not prompt for a password if su-ing to oneself.

Since x11vnc requires a password prompt from su, x11vnc forces those logins to fail even when the correct password is supplied. Previous older discussion prior to the -unixpw option: Until the VNC protocol and libvncserver support this things will be approximate at best. One approximate method involves starting x11vnc with the -localhost option.

This basically requires the viewer user to log into the workstation where x11vnc is running via their Unix username and password, and then somehow set up a port redirection of his vncviewer connection to make it appear to emanate from the local machine. As discussed above, ssh is useful for this: Of course a malicious user could allow other users to get in through his channel, but that is a problem with every method. Another thing to watch out for is a malicious user on the viewer side where ssh is running trying to sneak in through the ssh port redirection there.

Regarding limiting the set of Unix usernames who can connect, the traditional way would be to further require a VNC password to supplied -rfbauth , -passwd , etc and only tell the people allowed in what the VNC password is.

A scheme that avoids a second password involves using the -accept option that runs a program to examine the connection information to determine which user is connecting from the local machine. That may be difficult to do, but, for example, the program could use the ident service on the local machine normally ident should not be trusted over the network, but on the local machine it should be accurate: Unfortunately recent Linux distros seem to provide a random string MD5 hash?

An example script passed in via -accept scriptname that deduces the Unix username and limits who can be accepted might look something like this: Here is a similar example based on Linux netstat 1 output: Linux netstat -nte is used. For example, it may couple to your LDAP system or other servers you set up. If the command returns success, i.

For " -passwdfile cmd: Perhaps a dynamic, one-time password is retrieved from a server this way. For " -passwdfile custom: If you are willing to modify the VNC viewers, you can have it be anything you want, perhaps a less crackable MD5 hash scheme or one-time pad. Your program will read from its standard input the size of the challenge-response followed by a newline, then the challenge bytes followed by the response bytes. If your command then returns success, i. These variables can provide useful information for the externally supplied program to use.

These defaults are simple safety measures to avoid someone unknowingly leaving his X11 desktop exposed to the internet, say for long periods of time. Use the -forever option aka -many to have x11vnc wait for more connections after the first client disconnects.

Use the -shared option to have x11vnc allow multiple clients to connect simultaneously. Recommended additional safety measures include using ssh see above , stunnel, -ssl , or a VPN to authenticate and encrypt the viewer connections or to at least use the -rfbauth passwd-file option to use VNC password protection or -passwdfile It is up to YOU to apply these security measures, they will not be done for you automatically.

Yes, look at the -allow and -localhost options to limit connections by hostname or IP address. For individual hosts you can use the hostname instead of the IP number, e. Note that -localhost achieves the same thing as " -allow Here is one way to pass this information to the configure script: This requires libwrap and its development package tcpd.

So this name will likely be " x11vnc ", but you probably can configure it to be anything you want. For ipaddr either supply the desired network interface's IP address or use a hostname that resolves to it or use the string " localhost ".

For additional filtering simultaneously use the " -allow host1, This option is useful if you want to insure that no one can even begin a dialog with x11vnc from untrusted network interfaces e. The option -localhost now implies " -listen localhost " since that is what most people expect it to do. To do this specify " -allow localhost ". Unlike -localhost this will leave x11vnc listening on all interfaces but of course only allowing in local connections, e. Then you can later run " x11vnc -R allowonce: These settings can also be applied on a per-viewer basis via the remote control mechanism or the GUI.

Yes, look at the " -accept command " option, it allows you to specify an external command that is run for each new client. If the external command returns 0 success the client is accepted, otherwise with any other return code the client is rejected. See below how to also accept clients view-only. As a special case, " -accept popup " will instruct x11vnc to create its own simple popup window. To accept the client press "y" or click mouse on the "Yes" button. To reject the client press "n" or click mouse on the "No" button.

To accept the client View-only, press "v" or click mouse on the "View" button. If the -viewonly option has been supplied, the "View" action will not be present: The popup window times out after seconds, to change this behavior use " -accept popup: N " where N is the number of seconds use 0 for no timeout. After any of the 3 popup keywords you can supply a position of the window: Also as a special case " -accept xmessage " will run the xmessage 1 program to prompt the user whether the client should be accepted or not.

This requires that you have xmessage installed and available via PATH. In case it is not already on your system, the xmessage program is available at ftp: To include view-only decisions for the external commands, prefix the command something like this: It will prompt the user at the X display whether to accept, reject, or accept view-only the client, but if the prompt times out after 60 seconds the screen is locked and the VNC client is accepted.

This allows the remote access when no one is at the display. If timeout expires, screen is locked and the VNC viewer is accepted allows remote access when no one is sitting at the display. Information on how to use it is found at the top of the file. He encourages you to provide feedback to him to help improve the script. Note that in all cases x11vnc will block while the external command or popup is being run, so attached clients will not receive screen updates, etc during this period.

To run a command when a client disconnects, use the " -gone command " option. This is for the user's convenience only: Like -gone the return code is not interpreted. Please read the documentation on it also in the x11vnc -help output carefully for features and caveats.

It's use can often decrease security unless care is taken. Probably most work environments would respect your privacy if you powered off the monitor. Also remember if people have physical access to your workstation they basically can do anything they want with it e.

The source for it is blockdpy. The x11vnc user will notice something is happening and think about what to do next while the screen is in a locked state.

This works or at least has a chance of working because if the intruder moves the mouse or presses a key on the keyboard, the monitor wakes up out of the DPMS off state, and this induces the screen lock program to activate as soon as possible. Of course there are cracks in this, the eavesdropper could detach your monitor and insert a non-DPMS one, and there are race conditions. As mentioned above this is not bulletproof.

A really robust solution would likely require X server and perhaps even video hardware support. The blockdpy utility is launched by the -accept option and told to exit via the -gone option the vnc client user should obviously re-lock the screen before disconnecting! Instructions can be found in the source code for the utility at the above link. Roughly it is something like this: See also the -grabkbd , -grabptr , and -grabalways options.

Yes, a user mentions he uses the -gone option under CDE to run a screen lock program: Here is a scheme using the -afteraccept option in version 0. There is a problem if you have x11vnc running this way in -forever mode and you hit Ctrl-C to stop it.

The xlock or other program will get killed too. To work around this make a little script called setpgrp that looks like: A number of ways are described along with some issues you may encounter. Other secure encrypted methods exists, e. To do this from Windows using Putty it would go something like this: In the Putty dialog window under 'Session' enter the hostname or IP number of the Unix machine with display to be viewed.

Make sure the SSH protocol is selected and the server port is correct. In that SSH shell, start up x11vnc by typing the command: You can keep all of the settings in a Putty 'Saved Session'. Also, once everything is working, you can consider putting x11vnc -display: This can also be automated by Chaining SSH's. As discussed above another option is to first start the VNC viewer in "listen" mode, and then launch x11vnc with the " -connect localhost " option to establish the reverse connection.

In this case a Remote port redirection not Local is needed for port instead of i. SSL tunnels such as stunnel also stunnel. On the other hand, since SSH is usually installed everywhere and firewalls often let its port through, ssh is frequently the path of least resistance it also nicely manages public keys for you. They are discussed in the Next FAQ you probably want to skip to it now. We include these non-built-in method descriptions below for historical reference.

Here are some basic examples using stunnel but the general idea for any SSL tunnel utility is the same: Start up x11vnc and constrain it to listen on localhost. Then start up the SSL tunnel running on the same machine to forward incoming connections to that x11vnc. Finally, start the VNC Viewer and tell it to connect to the local port e. We'll first use the stunnel version 3 syntax since it is the most concise and Unixy. Start up x11vnc listening on port One can also create certificates signed by Certificate Authorities or self-signed if desired using the x11vnc utilities described there.

The nice thing is any SSL tunnel can be used because the protocol is a standard. For this example we'll also use stunnel on the viewer side on Unix. First start up the client-side stunnel version 3, not 4: Be sure to use a VNC password because unlike ssh by default the encrypted SSL channel provides no authentication only privacy. With some extra configuration one could also set up certificates to provide authentication of either or both sides as well and hence avoid man-in-the-middle attacks.

See the stunnel and openssl documentation and also the key management section for details. Much info for using it on Windows can be found at the stunnel site and in this article The article also shows the detailed steps to set up all the authentication certificates. The default Windows client setup no certs is simpler and only 4 files are needed in a folder: We used an stunnel.

As an aside, if you don't like the little "gap" of unencrypted TCP traffic and a localhost listening socket on the local machine between stunnel and x11vnc it can actually be closed by having stunnel start up x11vnc in -inetd mode: Somewhat sadly, the stunnel version 4 syntax is not so amenable to the command line or scripts. You need to create a config file with the parameters. Commercial versions of VNC seem to have some SSL-like encryption built in, but we haven't tried those either and they probably wouldn't work since their proprietary SSL-like negotiation is likely embedded in the VNC protocol unlike our case where it is external.

But it can be done, and with a wrapper script on the viewer side and the -stunnel or -ssl option on the server side it works well and is convenient. One could probably do a similar thing with a.

BAT file on Windows in the stunnel folder. All binaries stunnel , vncviewer , and some utilities are provided in the package. You can read about non-built-in methods in the Previous FAQ for background. SSL tunnels provide an encrypted channel without the need for Unix users, passwords, and key passphrases required for ssh and at the other extreme SSL can also provide a complete signed certificate chain of trust. On the other hand, since SSH is usually installed everywhere and firewalls often let its port through, ssh is frequently the path of least resistance.

The -ssl mode uses the www. The mode requires an SSL certificate and key i. These are usually created via the openssl 1 program in fact in for " -ssl " same as " -ssl SAVE " it will run openssl for you automatically. So the SSL is not completely "built-in" since this external tool needs to be installed, but at least x11vnc runs it for you automatically.

It will prompt you if you want to protect it with with a passphrase. Use " -ssl TMP " to create a temporary self-signed cert that will be discarded when x11vnc exits. This support is on by default when the -ssl option is in use and can be fine-tuned using these options: The normal x11vnc -ssl operation is somewhat like a URL method vncs: Viewer-side will need to use SSL as well. In general, the PEM file contains both the Certificate i. Because of the latter, the file should be protected from being read by untrusted users.

The best way to do this is to encrypt the key with a passphrase note however this requires supplying the passphrase each time x11vnc is started up. See the discussion on x11vnc Key Management for some utilities provided for creating and managing certificates and keys and even for creating your own Certificate Authority CA for signing VNC server and client certificates. This may be done by importing the certificate into Web Browser or Java plugin keystores, or pointing stunnel to it.

Here are some notes on the simpler default non-CA operation. To have x11vnc save the generated certificate and key, use the " SAVE " keyword like this: This opens up the possibility of copying the server.

When authentication takes place this way or via the more sophisticated CA signing described here , then Man-In-The-Middle-Attacks are prevented. Otherwise, the SSL encryption only provides protection against passive network traffic "sniffing" i. Nowadays, most people seem mostly concerned mainly about passive sniffing and the default x11vnc SSL mode protects against it.

They rely on the client not bothering to check the cert. The -stunnel mode requires the stunnel. You'll get output like this: The VNC desktop is: For -stunnel to work the stunnel command must be installed on the machine and available in PATH note stunnel is often installed in sbin directories rather than bin.

Note that the default " -stunnel " by itself creates a temporary cert as in " -ssl TMP ". So a tunnel must be setup that you point the VNC Viewer to.

As mentioned above the -httpdir can be used to specify the path to Or -http can be used to try to have it find the directory automatically. We tested it this way: The Java viewer uses SSL to communicate securely with x11vnc. For this case the output will be something like this: The https service provided thru the actual VNC port in the above example can occasionally be slow or unreliable it has to read some input and try to guess if the connection is VNC or HTTP.

If it is unreliable for you and you still want to serve the Java applet via https , use the -https option to get an additional port dedicated to https its URL will also be printed in the output. Another possibility is to add the GET applet parameter: Otherwise it must wait for a timeout to expire before it assumes a VNC connection.

Perhaps you are using a web server proxy scheme to enter a firewall or otherwise have rules applied to the URL. You apply multiple applet parameters in the regular URL way, e. Here are some tips to getting working the first time afterwards you can incrementally customize with more complex settings. First try it on the LAN: Do NOT try to have it work the first time going through firewalls, Web proxies, home router port redirections, or Apache portal.

Just try a direct connection over your LAN first if you only have 1 machine and no LAN, just do a direct connection to the same machine: If the LAN machine you run x11vnc on has its own host-level firewall most linux machine come with that on by default , disable it or at least let tcp ports through. But it can lead to timing and other problems.

That is to say try http: Always Restart the Browser: Otherwise as you are changing things the browser may "remember" failed applet downloads, etc.

If you see it trying to download VncViewer. Get it working first before taking your time to read the details in the dialogs, etc. Even if you intend to deploy via inetd or xinetd eventually, get that working later and remember do not use something like " -ssl TMP " that creates a new temporary SSL certificate for every new socket connection.

Just get the simplest connection working first and then incrementally add what you need. So the recommended test command lines are: Following the above guidelines, did it work? If you are having trouble even with the above baseline test case feel free to contact me please send the Full x11vnc output, not just part of it; the complete x11vnc command line; the URL s entered in the browser; the full Java Console output; and anything else you can think of.

Next, you can add the features you want one by one testing it still works each time. Next, turn on inetd if you intend to use that this can be tricky too, be sure to use -oa logfile and inspect it carefully if there are problems. If you are going to use non-standard ports e. Then enable the firewall, router port redirection channel you will somehow need to be outside to do that, maybe test that through another VNC session.

Then, if you plan to use them, enable "fancy stuff" like " -svc " or " -unixpw ", etc, etc. Be sure to add a password either " -rfbauth " or " -unixpw " or both. If you need to have the web browser use a corporate Web Proxy i. Ditto for the Apache portal. See also the -httpsredir option that will try to automate this for you.

To configure your router to do port redirection, see its instructions. Typically, from the inside you point a web browser to a special URL e. Look for something like "Port Redirection" or "Port Forwarding", probably under "Advanced" or something like that. If you do serve the SSL enabled Java viewer via https be prepared for quite a number of "are you sure you trust this site?

First from the Web browser that cannot verify the self-signed certificate when it downloads index. From the Web browser again noting that the common name on the certificate does not match the hostname of the remote machine.

And also from the Java VM again noting that the common name on the certificate does not match the hostname of the remote machine. Finally from the Java VncViewer applet itself saying it cannot verify the certificate! Note that sometimes if you pause too long at one of the above dialogs then x11vnc may exceed a timeout and assume the current socket connection is VNC instead of the HTTPS it actually is but since you have paused too long at the dialog the GET request comes too late.

Often hitting Reload and going through the dialogs more quickly will let you connect. If you see in the x11vnc output a request for VncViewer. To see example x11vnc output for a successful https: And here is a newer example including the Java Console output. The basic ideas of doing this were discussed for external tunnel utilities here. Note that on a Debian based system you will need to install the package stunnel4 not stunnel.

Here are some examples: The second one is as the first, but adds the -encodings options to the vncviewer command line. The third one requires that the x11vnc server authenticate itself to the client against the certificate in the file.

The fourth one is for VNC Viewer authentication, it uses. One can supply both -verify and -mycert simultaneously. The fifth one shows that Web proxies can be used if that is the only way to get out of the firewall.

If the "double proxy" situation arises separate the two by commas. See this page for more information on how Web proxies come into play. If one uses a Certificate Authority CA scheme described here , the wrapper script would use the CA cert instead of the server cert: The applet is downloaded successfully through the browser using HTTP and the proxy, but when the applet tries to reconnect to the originating host the only one allowed by security it does not use the proxy channel.

So it cannot reconnect to the server the applet came from! We have found a convenient workaround: Since the applet is digitally signed, there will be an additional dialog from the Java VM plugin asking you if you want to trust the applet fully. You should say "Yes". If you do, the applet will be run in a mode where it can try to determine the firewall proxy host name and port it will ask you for them if it cannot find them.

SSL is then layered over this socket. To do this you should use the proxy. For security, some most? In this case, the only thing to do is run x11vnc on that low port, e. If you do such a redirection to an internal machine and x11vnc is not listening on port , you will probably need to edit proxy. Suppose the SSL x11vnc server was listening on port You should change the line in proxy.

Another way to achieve the same thing is to use the applet PORT parameter: See also the -httpsredir x11vnc option that will try to automate this for you.

To use the GET trick discussed above , do: Here is an example of Java Console and x11vnc output for the Web proxy case. Also see the desktop. There are a number of ways to do this.

The primary thing you need to decide is whether you want x11vnc to connect to the X session on the machine 1 regardless of who or if anyone has the X session, or 2 only if a certain user has the X session. Xauthority the automatically started x11vnc will of course need to have sufficient permissions to connect to the X display.

Here are some ideas: The display manager scheme will not be specific to which user has the X session unless a test is specifically put into the display startup script often named Xsetup. The command to be run in the. One user recommends the description under 'Running Scripts Automatically' at this link.

We describe two scenarios here. The first is called ' One time only ' meaning you just need to do it quickly once and don't want to repeat; and the second is called ' Continuously ' meaning you want the access to be available after every reboot and after every desktop logout. If the X login screen is running and you just want to connect to it once i. Of course, the random characters in the file basename will vary and you will need to use the actual filename on your system.

Read your system docs to find out where the display manager cookie files are kept. If you do not want to run x11vnc as root, you can copy as root or sudo the auth file to some location and make it readable by your userid. Then run x11vnc as your userid with -auth pointed to the copied file. You next connect to x11vnc with a VNC viewer, give your username and password to the X login prompt to start your session.

Otherwise, just restart x11vnc and then reconnect your viewer. Other display managers kdm, etc may also have a similar problem. One user reports having to alter " gdm. Then restart dtlogin , e. The former is what GDM uses to kill the initial clients, use of the latter can cause a different problem: Have x11vnc reattach each time the X server is restarted i.

To make x11vnc always attached to the X server including the login screen you will need to add a command to a display manager startup script. Please consider the security implications of this! The VNC display for the X session always accessible but hopefully password protected. Add -localhost if you only plan to access via a SSH tunnel. The name of the display manager startup script file depends on desktop used and seem to be: See the documentation for your display manager: There may also be display number specific scripts: Xsetup , you need to watch out for.

You should read and understand all of the Note's and Update's in the ' One time only ' section above. All of the GDM topics apply here as well:. Other display managers KDM, etc may also have a similar problem. False step for Solaris will be needed for dtlogin here as well.

In any event, the line you will add to the display manager script Xsetup, Default, or whatever will look something like: Happy, happy, joy, joy: You may also want to force the VNC port with something like " -rfbport " or -N to avoid autoselecting one if is already taken. Here is an example of what we did on a vanilla install of Fedora-C3 seems to use gdm by default.

Here are full details on how to configure gdm. Here is an example of what we did on a vanilla install of Solaris: False Next, copy over Xsetup for customization: Restart the X server and dtlogin: One user running the kdm display manager reports putting this line: After rebooting the system it all seemed to work fine.

If you do not want to deal with any display manager startup scripts, here is a kludgey script that can be run manually or out of a boot file like rc. There is also the -loop option that does something similar. If the machine is a traditional Xterminal you may want to read this FAQ. Note that you must redirect the standard error output to a log file e. When you supply both -q and -inet and no " -o logfile " then stderr will automatically be closed to prevent, e. Using inetd for this prevents there being a tiny window of opportunity between x11vnc starting up and your vncviewer connecting to it.

Always use a VNC password to further protect against unwanted access. One user reports this works with avoiding the wrapper script: The above works nicely for GDM because the -auth file is a fixed name. Use the option -avahi same as -mdns or -zeroconf to enable it. If the Avahi client library or build environment is not available at build-time, then at run-time x11vnc will try to look for external helper programs, avahi-browse 1 or dns-sd 1 , to do the work.

The service was tested with Chicken of the VNC "Use Bonjour" selected on a Mac on the same network and the service was noted and listed in the servers list. It appears SuSE The easiest way to do this is via inetd 8 using the -unixpw and -display WAIT options.

The reason inetd 8 makes this easier is that it starts a new x11vnc process for each new user connection. Otherwise a wrapper would have to listen for connections and spawn new x11vnc 's see this example and also the -loopbg option. Also with inetd 8 users always connect to a fixed VNC display, say hostname: A default script somewhat like the above is used under " -display WAIT: If applicable -unixpw mode , the program is run as the Unix user name who logged in.

Note that the -find option is an alias for " -display WAIT: The -unixpw option allows UNIX password logins. It conveniently knows the Unix username whose X display should be found.

An alternative is to use a wrapper script, e. In the first inetd line x11vnc is run as user "nobody" and stays user nobody during the whole session. The permissions of the log files and certs directory will need to be set up to allow "nobody" to use them.

Note that SSL is required for this mode because otherwise the Unix password would be passed in clear text over the network. In general -unixpw is not required for this sort of scheme, but it is convenient because it determines exactly who the Unix user is whose display should be sought. If you really want to disable the SSL or SSH -localhost constraints this is not recommended unless you really know what you are doing: Unix passwords sent in clear text is a very bad idea A inetd 8 scheme for a fixed user that doesn't use SSL or unix passwds could be: Similar looking commands to the above examples can be run directly and do not use inetd just remove the -inetd option and run from the cmdline, etc.

This is the only time x11vnc actually tries to start up an X server normally it just attaches to an existing one. The address can also be a hostname, for example:. The ssl parameter allows specifying that all connections accepted on this port should work in SSL mode. The udp parameter configures a listening socket for working with datagrams 1. The listen directive can have several additional parameters specific to socket-related system calls. Different servers must listen on different address: Specifies a size of the preread buffer.

Specifies a timeout of the preread phase. LightDM is the default display manager since Ubuntu However, to provide maximum of flexibility both modules can be used together on the same guest.

For manual or postponed installation, the vbox-greeter. The LightDM server needs to be fully restarted in order to get vbox-greeter used as the default greeter. As root, do a service lightdm --full-restart on Ubuntu, or simply restart the guest.

However, it requires FLTK 1. There are numerous guest properties which can be used to further customize the login experience. In addition to the above mentioned guest properties, vbox-greeter allows further customization of its user interface.

Set to "1" if vbox-greeter should hide the button to restart the guest. Set to "1" if vbox-greeter should hide the button to shutdown the guest. PNG file for using it as a banner on the top. The image size must be x 90 pixels, any bit depth. Set to "1" for turning on the following theming options. Beginning with Windows NT 4. Sysprep to prepare a Windows system for deployment or redistribution. Whereas Windows and XP ship with Sysprep on the installation medium, the tool also is available for download on the Microsoft web site.

In a standard installation of Windows Vista and 7, Sysprep is already included. Sysprep mainly consists of an executable called sysprep. Starting with VirtualBox 3. Sysprep then gets launched with the required system rights.

Specifying the location of "sysprep. The Guest Additions will automatically use the appropriate path to execute the system preparation tool. The VirtualBox Guest Additions contain several different drivers. If for any reason you do not wish to set them all up, you can install the Guest Additions using the following command:.

To setup the time synchronization service, add the service vboxadd-service to the default runlevel. After compilation you should reboot your guest to ensure that the new modules are actually used.

This section assumes that you are familiar with configuring the X. Org server using xorg. If not you can learn about them by studying the documentation which comes with X. For graphics integration to work correctly, the X server must load the vboxvideo driver many recent X server versions look for it automatically if they see that they are running in VirtualBox and for an optimal user experience the guest kernel drivers must be loaded and the Guest Additions tool VBoxClient must be running as a client in the X session.

For mouse integration to work correctly, the guest kernel drivers must be loaded and in addition, in X servers from X. The driver will offer a range of standard modes at least up to the default guest resolution for all active guest monitors. When VBoxClient and the kernel drivers are active this is done automatically when the host requests a mode change.

The driver for older versions can only receive new modes by querying the host for requests at regular intervals. You simply need to add them to the "Modes" list in the "Display" subsection of the "Screen" section. For example, the section shown here has a custom x resolution mode added:.

CPU hot-plugging works only with guest operating systems that support it. Windows supports only hot-add while Linux supports hot-add and hot-remove but to use this feature with more than 8 CPUs a 64bit Linux guest is required. First, hot-plugging needs to be enabled for a virtual machine:. After that, the --cpus option specifies the maximum number of CPUs that the virtual machine can have:. When the VM is off, you can then add and remove virtual CPUs with the modifyvm --plugcpu and --unplugcpu subcommands, which take the number of the virtual CPU as a parameter, like this:.

While the VM is running, CPUs can be added and removed with the controlvm plugcpu and unplugcpu commands instead:. With Linux guests, the following applies: To prevent ejection while the CPU is still used it has to be ejected from within the guest before.

The Linux Guest Additions service will take care of that if installed. If not a CPU can be started with the following command:. When running on Linux hosts, with a recent enough kernel at least version 2. The PCI passthrough module is shipped as a VirtualBox extension package, which must be installed separately. Essentially this feature allows to directly use physical PCI devices on the host by the guest even if host doesn't have drivers for this particular device.

This limitation may be lifted in future releases. If the device uses bus mastering i. The IOMMU functions as translation unit mapping physical memory access requests from the device using knowledge of the guest physical address to host physical addresses translation rules.

So please check if your motherboard datasheet has appropriate technology. Even if your hardware doesn't have a IOMMU, certain PCI cards may work such as serial PCI adapters , but the guest will show a warning on boot and the VM execution will terminate if the guest driver will attempt to enable card bus mastering. So before any attempt to use it please make sure that.

To figure out the list of available PCI devices, use the lspci command. The output will look like this:. The first column is a PCI address in format bus: This address could be used to identify the device for further operations. For example, to attach a PCI network controller on the system listed above to the second PCI bus in the guest, as device 5, function 0, use the following command:.

Please note that both host and guest could freely assign a different PCI address to the card attached during runtime, so those addresses only apply to the address of the card at the moment of attachment host , and during BIOS PCI init guest.

No lazy physical memory allocation. The host will preallocate the whole RAM required for the VM on startup as we cannot catch physical hardware accesses to the physical memory. This complements the general USB passthrough support which was the typical way of using host webcams in earlier versions. The webcam passthrough support can handle non-USB video sources in theory, but this is completely untested.

The webcam passthrough module is shipped as part of the Oracle VM VirtualBox extension pack, which must be installed separately. The "Webcams" menu contains a list of available video input devices on the host. Clicking on a webcam name attaches or detaches the corresponding host device.

The VBoxManage command line tool can be used to enable webcam passthrough. Please see the host-specific sections below for additional details. The following commands are available:. The alias can be used as a shortcut in other commands. The device order is host-specific.

The following settings are supported:. MaxFramerate The highest rate at which video frames are sent to the guest. A higher frame rate requires more CPU power. Therefore sometimes it is useful to set a lower limit. Default is no limit and allow the guest to use all frame rates supported by the host webcam.

MaxPayloadTransferSize How many bytes the emulated webcam can send to the guest at a time. Default value is bytes, which is used by some webcams. Higher values can slightly reduce CPU load, if the guest is able to use larger buffers.

However, a high MaxPayloadTransferSize might be not supported by some guests. The output contains path or alias which was used in 'webcam attach' command for each attached webcam. When the webcam device is detached from the host, the emulated webcam device is automatically detached from the guest.

When the webcam device is detached from the host, the emulated webcam device remains attached to the guest and must be manually detached using the VBoxManage controlvm "VM name" webcam detach When the webcam is detached from the host the emulated webcam device is automatically detached from the guest only if the webcam is streaming video. If the emulated webcam is inactive it should be manually detached using the VBoxManage controlvm "VM name" webcam detach When using Windows guests with the VirtualBox Guest Additions, a custom graphics driver will be used instead of the fallback VESA solution so this information does not apply.

Additional video modes can be configured for each VM using the extra data facility. Please note that modes will be read from 1 until either the following number is not defined or 16 is reached.

The following example adds a video mode that corresponds to the native display resolution of many notebook computers:. In order to use the above defined custom video mode, the following command line has be supplied to Linux:. For guest operating systems with VirtualBox Guest Additions, a custom video mode can be set using the video mode hint feature.

When guest systems with the Guest Additions installed are started using the graphical frontend the normal VirtualBox application , they will not be allowed to use screen resolutions greater than the host's screen size unless the user manually resizes them by dragging the window, switching to full screen or seamless mode or sending a video mode hint using VBoxManage.

This behavior is what most users will want, but if you have different needs, it is possible to change it by issuing one of the following commands from the command line:. Note that these settings apply globally to all guest systems, not just to a single machine. Starting with version 1. With VirtualBox, this type of access is called "raw hard disk access"; it allows a guest operating system to access its virtual hard disk without going through the host OS file system.

The actual performance difference for image files vs. The caching indirectly also affects other aspects such as failure behavior, i.

Consult your host OS documentation for details on this. Raw hard disk access is for expert users only. Incorrect use or use of an outdated configuration can lead to total loss of data on the physical disk. Most importantly, do not attempt to boot the partition with the currently running host operating system in a guest. This will lead to severe data corruption. Raw hard disk access -- both for entire disks and individual partitions -- is implemented as part of the VMDK image format support.

As a result, you will need to create a special VMDK image file which defines where the data will be stored. After creating such a special VMDK image, you can use it like a regular virtual disk image. While this variant is the simplest to set up, you must be aware that this will give a guest operating system direct and full access to an entire physical disk. If your host operating system is also booted from this disk, please take special care to not access the partition from the guest at all.

On the positive side, the physical disk can be repartitioned in arbitrary ways without having to recreate the image file that gives access to the raw disk. To create an image that represents an entire physical hard disk which will not contain any actual data, as this will all be stored on the physical disk , on a Linux host, use the command. On a Windows host, instead of the above device specification, use e.

On a Mac OS X host, instead of the above device specification use e. Note that on OS X you can only get access to an entire disk if no volume is mounted from it. On some host platforms e. Windows Vista and later , raw disk access may be restricted and not permitted by the host OS in some situations.

Just like with regular disk images, this does not automatically attach the newly created image to a virtual machine. This can be done with e. When this is done the selected virtual machine will boot from the specified physical disk.

This "raw partition support" is quite similar to the "full hard disk" access described above. However, in this case, any partitioning information will be stored inside the VMDK image, so you can e. While the guest will be able to see all partitions that exist on the physical disk, access will be filtered in that reading from partitions for which no access is allowed the partitions will only yield zeroes, and all writes to them are ignored.

To create a special image for raw partition support which will contain a small amount of data, as already mentioned , on a Linux host, use the command. As you can see, the command is identical to the one for "full hard disk" access, except for the additional -partitions parameter.

VirtualBox uses the same partition numbering as your Linux host. As a result, the numbers given in the above example would refer to the first primary partition and the first logical drive in the extended partition, respectively. Note that on OS X you can only use partitions which are not mounted eject the respective volume first. The output lists the partition types and sizes to give the user enough information to identify the partitions necessary for the guest.

Images which give access to individual partitions are specific to a particular host disk setup. You cannot transfer these images to another host; also, whenever the host partitioning changes, the image must be recreated.

If this is not feasible, there is a special variant for raw partition access currently only available on Linux hosts that avoids having to give the current user access to the entire disk.

To set up such an image, use. During creation however, read-only access to the entire disk is required to obtain the partitioning information.

In some configurations it may be necessary to change the MBR code of the created image, e. For this purpose the -mbr parameter is provided. It specifies a file name from which to take the MBR code. The partition table is not modified at all, so a MBR file from a system with totally different partitioning can be used. An example of this is. The created image can be attached to a storage controller in a VM configuration as usual.

VirtualBox reports vendor product data for its virtual hard disks which consist of hard disk serial number, firmware revision and model number. These can be changed using the following commands:. The serial number is a 20 byte alphanumeric string, the firmware revision an 8 byte alphanumeric string and the model number a 40 byte alphanumeric string.

The commands for virtual machines with an IDE controller are:. For hard disks it's also possible to mark the drive as having a non-rotational medium with:. The vendor id is an 8 byte alphanumeric string, the product id an 16 byte alphanumeric string and the revision a 4 byte alphanumeric string. As an experimental feature, VirtualBox allows for accessing an iSCSI target running in a virtual machine which is configured for using Internal Networking mode. The following eight commands must first be issued:.

If a virtual machine using an iSCSI disk is started without having the iSCSI target powered up, it can take up to seconds to detect this situation. The VM will fail to power up. For backwards compatibility, the old setextradata statements, whose description is retained below from the old version of the manual, take precedence over the new way of configuring serial ports.

As a result, if configuring serial ports the new way doesn't work, make sure the VM in question does not have old configuration data such as below still active. On Linux the same configuration settings apply, except that the path name for the Location can be chosen more freely. Local domain sockets can be placed anywhere, provided the user running VirtualBox has the permission to create a new file in the directory.

The final command above defines that VirtualBox acts as a server, i. So x is 2 when there is only one NAT instance active. In that case the guest is assigned to the address If, for any reason, the NAT network needs to be changed, this can be achieved with the following command:.

This command would reserve the network addresses from The guest IP would be assigned to This default behavior should work fine for typical remote-booting scenarios. However, it is possible to change the boot server IP and the location of the boot image with the following commands:.

For certain setups users might want to adjust the buffer size for a better performance. This can by achieved using the following commands values are in kilobytes and can range from 8 to This example illustrates tuning the NAT settings. The first parameter is the MTU, then the size of the socket's send buffer and the size of the socket's receive buffer, the initial size of the TCP send window, and lastly the initial size of the TCP receive window.

Note that specifying zero means fallback to the default value. The technical reason for this is that the NAT engine uses sockets for communication.

If, for some reason, you want to change this behavior, you can tell the NAT engine to bind to a particular IP address instead. Use the following command:. After this, all outgoing traffic will be sent through the interface with the IP address Please make sure that this interface is up and running prior to this assignment. If for some reason you need to hide this DNS server list and use the host's resolver settings, thereby forcing the VirtualBox NAT engine to intercept DNS requests and forward them to host's resolver, use the following command:.

Note that this setting is similar to the DNS proxy mode, however whereas the proxy mode just forwards DNS requests to the appropriate servers, the resolver mode will interpret the DNS requests and use the host's DNS API to query the information and return it to the guest. In some cases it might be useful to intercept the name resolving mechanism, providing a user-defined IP address on a particular DNS request.

The intercepting mechanism allows the user to map not only a single host but domains and even more complex naming conventions if required. This example demonstrates how to instruct the host-resolver mechanism to resolve all domain and probably some mirrors of www. The host resolver mechanism should be enabled to use user-defined mapping rules, otherwise they don't have any effect.

By default, the NAT core uses aliasing and uses random ports when generating an alias for a connection. Though some protocols might need a more transparent behavior or may depend on the real port number the packet was sent from. The first example disables aliasing and switches NAT into transparent mode, the second example enforces preserving of port values. These modes can be combined if necessary. In that case, use "string: Changing this information can be necessary to provide the DMI information of the host to the guest to prevent Windows from asking for a new product key.

Use the following command to configure this:. By default, VirtualBox keeps all sources of time visible to the guest synchronized to a single time source, the monotonic host time. This reflects the assumptions of many guest operating systems, which expect all time sources to reflect "wall clock" time.

In special circumstances it may be useful however to make the TSC time stamp counter in the guest reflect the time actually spent executing the guest. This special TSC handling mode can be enabled on a per-VM basis, and for best results must be used only in combination with hardware virtualization. To enable this mode use the following command:.

Note that if you use the special TSC handling mode with a guest operating system which is very strict about the consistency of time sources you may get a warning or error message about the timing inconsistency. It may also cause clocks to become unreliable with some guest operating systems depending on how they use the TSC. For certain purposes it can be useful to accelerate or to slow down the virtual guest clock. This can be achieved as follows:. Note that changing the rate of the virtual clock can confuse the guest and can even lead to abnormal guest behavior.

For instance, a higher clock rate means shorter timeouts for virtual devices with the result that a slightly increased response time of a virtual device due to an increased host load can cause guest failures.

Note further that any time synchronization mechanism will frequently try to resynchronize the guest clock with the reference clock which is the host clock if the VirtualBox Guest Additions are active. The VirtualBox Guest Additions ensure that the guest's system time is synchronized with the host time.

There are several parameters which can be tuned. The parameters can be set for a specific VM using the following command:. Specifies the interval at which to synchronize the time with the host. The default is ms 10 seconds. The minimum absolute drift value measured in milliseconds to make adjustments for. The factor to multiply the time query latency with to calculate the dynamic minimum adjust time.

The default is 8 times, that means in detail: Measure the time it takes to determine the host time the guest has to contact the VM host service which may take some time , multiply this value by 8 and do an adjustment only if the time difference between host and guest is bigger than this value. Don't do any time adjustment otherwise. The absolute drift threshold, given as milliseconds where to start setting the time instead of trying to smoothly adjust it.

The default is 20 minutes. Set the time after the VM was restored from a saved state when passing 1 as parameter default. Disable by passing 0. In the latter case, the time will be adjusted smoothly which can take a long time. Once installed and started, the VirtualBox Guest Additions will try to synchronize the guest time with the host time. This can be prevented by forbidding the guest service from reading the host clock:. By default, this new driver is installed for Solaris 11 hosts builds and above that has support for it.

To force installation of the Crossbow based network filter driver, execute as root the following command before installing the VirtualBox package:. To create VNIC templates that are persistent across host reboots, skip the -t parameter in the above command. You may check the current state of links using:.

The VNIC template itself can be modified anytime using dladm. Refer to your Solaris network documentation on how to accomplish this. By default VirtualBox provides you with one host-only network interface.

Adding more host-only network interfaces on Solaris hosts requires manual configuration. Here's how to add another host-only network interface. Begin by stopping all running VMs. Then, unplumb the existing "vboxnet0" interface by execute the following command as root:. If you have several vboxnet interfaces, you will need to unplumb all of them.

Once all vboxnet interfaces are unplumbed, remove the driver by executing the following command as root:. To check what name has been assigned, execute:. In the above example, we can rename "net2" to "vboxnet1" before proceeding to plumb the interface. This can be done by executing as root:. Now plumb all the interfaces using ifconfig vboxnetX plumb where 'X' would be 1 in this case. Once the interface is plumbed, it may be configured like any other network interface.

Refer to the ifconfig documentation for further details. The VirtualBox installer only updates these configuration files for the one "vboxnet0" interface it creates by default. VirtualBox is capable of producing its own core files for extensive debugging when things go wrong.

Currently this is only available on Solaris hosts. Make sure the directory you specify is on a volume with sufficient free space and that the VirtualBox process has sufficient permissions to write files to this directory. If you skip this command and don't specify any core dump directory, the current directory of the VirtualBox executable will be used which would most likely fail when writing cores as they are protected with root permissions. It is recommended you explicitly set a core dump directory.

You must specify when the VirtualBox CoreDumper should be triggered. This is done using the following commands:. At least one of the above two commands will have to be provided if you have enabled the VirtualBox CoreDumper. After producing the core file, the VM will not be terminated and will continue to run.

You can thus take cores of the VM process using:. Core files produced by the VirtualBox CoreDumper are of the form core. Solaris kernel zones on xbased systems make use of hardware-assisted virtualization features like VirtualBox does. However, for kernel zones and VirtualBox to share this hardware resource, they need to co-operate. VirtualBox can be instructed to relinquish use of hardware-assisted virtualization features when not executing guest code, thereby allowing kernel zones to make use of them.

To do this, shutdown all VirtualBox VMs and execute the following command:. This command needs to be executed only once as the setting is stored as part of the global VirtualBox settings which will continue to persist across host-reboots and VirtualBox upgrades.

There are several advanced customization settings for locking down the VirtualBox manager, that is, removing some features that the user should not see. Don't allow to start the VirtualBox manager. Trying to do so will show a window containing a proper error message. The following per-machine VM extradata settings can be used to change the behavior of the VM selector window in respect of certain VMs:.

Don't show the VM configuration of a certain VM. The details window will remain just empty if this VM is selected. Please note that these settings wouldn't prevent the user from reconfiguring the VM by VBoxManage modifyvm. You can disable i. This is a global setting. Any combination of the above is allowed. To restore the default behavior, use. Don't show the Debug menu in the VM window. The debug menu is only visible if the GUI was started with special command line parameters or environment variable settings.

This is a per-VM setting. You can also disable i. Use the following command to disable certain actions of the Application menu only available on Mac OS X hosts:. Use the following command to disable certain actions of the Machine menu:. Don't show the Session Information menu item in this menu. Don't show the Disable Mouse Integration menu item in this menu.

Don't show the Save the machine state menu item in this menu. Don't show the Power Off the machine menu item in this menu. Use the following command to disable certain actions of the View menu:. Don't show the Switch to Fullscreen menu item in this menu.

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